Envirnomental Studies Notes JNTU – ES Notes JNTU of Total Complete Notes
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ECOSYSTEMS:Deﬁnition, Scope and Importance of ecosystem. Concept of ecosystem. Classiﬁcation of ecosystems, Structure and Structural Components of an ecosystem, Functions of ecosystem. Food chains. food webs and ecological pyramids. Flow of energy. Biogeochernical cycles, Homeostasis/ Cybernetics. Food chain concentration. Bio magniﬁcation, ecosystems value, services and carrying capacity.
NATURAL RESOURCES: Classiﬁcation of Resources: Living and Non- Living resources, Renewable and non-renewable resources. Water resources: use and over utilization of surface and ground water. ﬂoods and droughts, Dams: beneﬁts and problems. Mineral resources: use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources – case studies. Energy resources: growing energy needs. renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources — case studies. Land resources: land, as a resource. land degradation, man induced landslides and land use /land cover mapping.
BIODIVERSITY AND BIOTIC RESOURCES: Introduction, Deﬁnition, genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. Value of biodiversity: consumptive use. productive use. social, ethical, aesthetic and intrinsic values. Hot spots of biodiversity. Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss. poaching of wildlife. man-wildlife conﬂicts, conservation of biodiversity: In-Situ and Ex-situ conservation. Food and fodder resources, Timber and non-timber forest products.
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND CONTROL:Classiﬁcation of pollution and pollutants, causes, effects and control technologies. Air Pollution: Primary and secondary pollutants, Automobile and Industrial pollution. Ambient air quality standards. Water pollution: Point and non- point sources of pollution, Major pollutant of water and their sources. drinking water quality standards, Waste water treatment methods: effluent treatment plants (ETP), Sewage treatment plants (STP), common and combined efﬂuent treatment plants (CETP).Soil Pollution: Soil as sink for pollutants, Impact of modern agriculture on soil, degradation of soil. Marine Pollution: Misuse of International water for dumping of hazardous waste, coastal pollution due to sewage and marine disposal of industrial effluents. Noise Pollution: Sources, Industrial N0ise- Occupational Health hazards, standards, Methods of control of Noise. Thermal Pollution: Thermal Comforts, Heat Island effect, Radiation effects. Nuclear Pollution: Nuclear power plants. nuclear radiation. disasters and impacts. genetical disorders Solid waste: types, Collection processing and disposal of industrial and municipal solid wastes composition and characteristics of e-Waste and its management.
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND GLOBAL EFFORTS : Green house effect, Green House Gases (GHG), Global Warming, Sea level rise, climate change and their impacts on human environment. Ozone depletion and Ozone depleting substances (0DS).Deforestation and desertiﬁcation. International conventions/ Protocols: Earth summit. Kyoto protocol and Montreal Protocol.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN:Deﬁnition of Impact: classiﬁcation of impacts, Positive and Negative, Reversible and irreversible, light, moderate and severe, methods of baseline data acquisition. Impacts on different components: such as human health resources, air, water. flora. fauna and society. Prediction of impacts and impact assessment methodologies. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Environmental Management Plan (EMP): Technological Solutions. preventive methods, Control technologies, treatment technologies: green-belt-developrnent, rain water harvesting. Remote sensing and GIS methods.
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY,LEGISLATION,RULES AND REGULATIONS:National Environmental Policy, Environmental Protection act. Legal aspects Air (Prevention and Control of pollution )Act- 1981 , Watert Prevention and Control of pollution )Act-1974, Water pollution Cess Act-1977, Forest Conservation Act. Municipal solid waste management and handling rules. biomedical waste management and handling rules. hazardous waste management and handling rules.
UNIT – VIII
TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE FUTURE:Concept of Sustainable Development,Threats to Sustainability. Population and its explosion, Crazy Consumerism, Over-exploitation of resources. Strategies for Achieving Sustainable development, Environmental Education, Conservation of Resources, Urban Sprawl, Sustainable Cities and Sustainable Communities. Human health, Role of IT in Environment. Environmental Ethics, Environmental Economics. Concept of Green Building, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).