Watershed Management Notes JNTU – WM Notes JNTU of Total Complete Notes
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INTRODUCTION : Concept of watershed development, objectives of watershed development, need for watershed development in India, Integrated and multidisciplinary approach for watershed management.
CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERSHED : size, shape, physiography, slope, climate, drainage, land use, vegetation, geology and soils, hydrology and hydrogeology, socio-economic characteristics, basic data on watersheds;
Watershed delineation — Runoff Computations from a watershed— Flood Frequency Analysis -Gumbell,log Pearson and Weibull Methods of Analysis.
PRINCIPLES OF EROSION: Types of erosion, factors affecting erosion, effects of erosion on land fertility and land capability, estimation of soil loss due to erosion, Universal soil loss equation.
MEASURES TO CONTROL EROSION: Contour techniques, ploughing, furrowing, trenching, bunding, terracing, gully control, rockfill dams, brushwood dam, Gabion.
WATER HARVESTING: Rainwater Harvesting, catchment harvesting, harvesting structures, soil moisture conservation, check dams, artificial recharge, farm ponds, percolation tanks.
FOREST AND GRASS LAND MANAGEMENT: Interpretation of Satellite Imageries- Land use and Land Cover. Land capability classification, management of forest, agricultural, grassland and wild land. Reclamation of saline and alkaline soils.
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT: Role of Ecosystem, crop husbandry, soil enrichment, inter, mixed and strip cropping, cropping pattern, sustainable agriculture, bio-mass management, dry land agriculture, Silvi pasture, horticulture, social forestry and afforestation.
Planning of watershed management activities, peoples participation, preparation of action plan, administrative requirements- Reservoir Routing.